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instruction

INSTRUCTION STRATEGY
METACOGNITIVE STRATEGY INSTRUCTION (MSI) FOR READING: STRATEGI metakognitif INSTRUKSI (MSI) UNTUK Bacaan:
CO-REGULATION OF COGNITION CO-PERATURAN kognisi
Bromeley Philip¹ & Tan Kim Hua² Philip Bromeley ¹ & Tan Kim Hua ²
¹ Academy of Language Studies ¹ Academy of Language Studies
Universiti Teknologi MARA Sarawak Universiti Teknologi MARA Sarawak
Kampus Samarahan, Jalan Meranek, Kampus Samarahan, Jalan Meranek,
94300 Kota Samarahan 94.300 Kota Samarahan
Kuching, Sarawak Kuching, Sarawak
² School of Language Studies and Linguistics ² Sekolah Studi Bahasa dan Linguistik
Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Humaniora
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi
Abstract Abstrak
This paper aims to show how a teacher and ESL learners can successfully engage in Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menunjukkan bagaimana guru dan pelajar ESL berhasil dapat terlibat dalam
mutual regulation of strategy use as they co-construct meaning from the reading text. peraturan bersama strategi digunakan sebagai rekan mereka membangun makna dari teks bacaan. It Ini
focuses on the teacher's effort at giving direct explanation of various learning strategies berfokus pada upaya guru untuk memberikan penjelasan langsung dari berbagai strategi belajar
for reading, that is, it illustrates how learners are explicitly taught not only the various untuk membaca, yaitu, itu menggambarkan bagaimana peserta didik secara eksplisit tidak hanya diajarkan berbagai
components of a learning strategy but also the rationales of the “how”, “when” and komponen strategi pembelajaran, tetapi juga alasan-alasan dari "bagaimana", "ketika" dan
“where” to use that particular strategy. "Di mana" untuk menggunakan strategi tertentu. The study on co-regulation of strategy use adopts Kajian terhadap peraturan co-strategi menggunakan mengadopsi
a qualitative approach to data collection and analysis. pendekatan kualitatif melalui pengumpulan data dan analisis. It was conducted via the Itu dilakukan melalui
implementation of a Metacognitive Strategy Instruction (MSI) for academic reading. pelaksanaan Strategi metakognitif Instruksi (MSI) untuk membaca akademik. The Itu
instruction session started with an explicit direct explanation of learning strategies that instruksi sesi dimulai dengan penjelasan langsung yang eksplisit strategi pembelajaran yang
include macro strategies such as planning, comprehension monitoring, problem solving, meliputi strategi makro seperti perencanaan, pemantauan pemahaman, pemecahan masalah,
evaluating and modifying. mengevaluasi dan memodifikasi. Subsequently, the learners were taught how to apply the Selanjutnya, para peserta diajarkan bagaimana menerapkan
strategies using a strategic processing framework called Self-regulated Learning strategi pengolahan menggunakan kerangka kerja strategis disebut mandiri Belajar
Approach to Strategic Learning (SRSL) to construct meanings from the reading text. Pendekatan Strategis Learning (SRSL) untuk membangun makna dari teks bacaan. The Itu
qualitative account of the learners' strategy use was elicited using a qualitative rekening kualitatif dari peserta didik adalah strategi menggunakan kualitatif diperoleh dengan menggunakan
retrospective written recall protocol (RWP). retrospektif ditulis ingat protokol (RWP). The study found that both the High Studi ini menemukan bahwa baik Tinggi
Proficient (HP) and Low-proficient (LP) learners benefited reasonably well from the Mahir (HP) dan Low-cakap (LP) peserta didik cukup baik manfaat dari
experience of the MSI sessions. pengalaman sesi MSI. The learners reported on how the strategies helped Pembelajar melaporkan tentang bagaimana strategi membantu
facilitate their reading process. memfasilitasi proses membaca mereka. The key issue revealed in the study is that the MSI Isu penting diungkapkan dalam studi ini adalah bahwa MSI
sessions have managed to at least prepare if not transform the learners into becoming sesi telah berhasil setidaknya mempersiapkan diri jika tidak mengubah peserta didik untuk menjadi
metacognitively sophisticated readers. metacognitively canggih pembaca.
Keywords: Mutual regulation; Metacognitive Strategy Instruction; Self-regulated Keywords: Mutual peraturan; Strategi metakognitif Instruksi; Self-diatur
Learning Approach to Strategic Learning; Reading & Learning Strategy Belajar Pendekatan Strategis Belajar; Membaca & Belajar Strategi
Abstrak Abstrak
Makalah ini bertujuan memperlihatkan bagaimana guru dan pelajar Bahasa Inggeris Makalah ini bertujuan memperlihatkan bagaimana pelajar dan guru Bahasa Inggeris
sebagai Bahasa Kedua mengamalkan strategi regulasi bersama dengan jayanya semasa Sebagai Bahasa Kedua strategi mengamalkan regulasi bersama dengan jayanya semasa
kedua-dua pihak saling terlibat dalam pembinaan makna daripada teks bacaan. kedua-dua saling PIHAK Terlibat dalam makna pembinaan daripada teks bacaan. Tumpuan Tumpuan
guru adalah ke arah memberi penjelasan secara langsung tentang pelbagai strategi guru adalah ke arah memberi penjelasan secara langsung tentang strategi Pelbagai
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membaca di mana pelajar bukan hanya diajar komponen strategi pembelajaran malahan membaca di mana pelajar bukan hanya diajar komponen strategi pembelajaran malahan
didedah kepada rasional di sebalik 'bagaimana', 'bila' dan 'di mana' boleh menggunakan Rasional kepada didedah di sebalik 'bagaimana', 'bila' dan 'di mana' boleh Menggunakan
strategi tersebut. strategi tersebut. Penyelidikan strategi regulasi bersama ini menengahkan pendekatan Penyelidikan bersama strategi regulasi Pendekatan ini menengahkan
kualitatif dalam pengumpulan dan analisis data menggunakan 'Metacognitive Strategy kualitatif dalam Pengumpulan dan analisis data yang Menggunakan 'Strategi metakognitif
Instruction' (MSI) yang diamalkan untuk bacaan yang bersifat akademik. Instruksi '(MSI) yang diamalkan untuk bacaan yang bersifat akademik. Sesi pengajaran Sesi pengajaran
bermula dengan penerangan eksplisit strategi pembelajaran yang termasuk strategi makro Bermula dengan penerangan yang eksplisit strategi pembelajaran termasuk strategi makro
seperti perancangan, pemahaman, pemantauan, penyelesaian masalah, penilaian dan seperti Perancangan, Pemahaman, pemantauan, penyelesaian masalah, penilaian dan
pindaan. pindaan. Berikutan ini, pelajar diajar mengaplikasikan kerangka kerja 'Self-regulated Berikutan ini, pelajar diajar mengaplikasikan Kerangka kerja 'Self-diatur
Learning Approach to Strategic Learning' (SRSL) yang bertujuan membina makna Belajar Pendekatan Strategis Belajar '(SRSL) yang bertujuan membina makna
daripada teks bacaan. daripada teks bacaan. Data kualitatif diperolehi melalui instrumen 'qualitative Data kualitatif diperolehi melalui Instrumen "kualitatif
retrospective written recall protocol' (RWP). retrospektif ditulis ingat protokol '(RWP). Secara keseluruhan, dapatan kajian Secara keseluruhan, dapatan kajian
menunjukkan bahawa kumpulan pelajar 'High Proficient' (HP) dan 'Low Proficient' (LP) menunjukkan bahawa kumpulan pelajar 'High Proficient' (HP) dan 'rendah Proficient' (LP)
telah mendapat manfaat yang munasabah daripada sesi MSI yang telah melengkapi dan telah mendapat manfaat daripada sesi yang munasabah MSI yang telah melengkapi dan
menyediakan mereka ke arah menjadi pembaca metakognitif yang sofistikated. menyediakan mereka ke arah metakognitif yang menjadi pembaca sofistikated.
Kata kunci: Regulasi bersama; Metacognitive Strategy Instruction; Self-regulated Kata kunci: Regulasi bersama; metakognitif Strategi Instruksi; Self-diatur
Learning Approach to Strategic Learning; Strategi membaca dan belajar Belajar Pendekatan Strategis Belajar; Strategi membaca dan belajar
INTRODUCTION PENDAHULUAN
This article discusses the implementation of Metacognitive Strategy Instruction (MSI) in Artikel ini membahas pelaksanaan Strategi metakognitif Instruksi (MSI) dalam
the context of academic reading at an ESL tertiary environment in Malaysia. konteks akademik ESL membaca di sebuah lingkungan tersier di Malaysia. The MSI MSI
incorporates co-regulation of cognition, that is, the teacher provides the learners not only menggabungkan co-peraturan kognisi, yaitu, guru pembelajar memberikan tidak hanya
with constructive scaffolding on such strategies as planning, monitoring, problem-solving dengan perancah konstruktif pada strategi seperti perencanaan, pengawasan, pemecahan masalah
and evaluating, but also conceptual scaffolding on the meaning construction process from dan mengevaluasi, tapi juga konseptual perancah pada proses konstruksi makna dari
the text. teks. The aim of this article is to examine the actual process of strategy use as Tujuan artikel ini adalah untuk mengkaji proses sebenarnya strategi digunakan sebagai
evidenced in the learners' retrospective written recall protocols. dibuktikan dalam pembelajar 'retrospektif ditulis ingat protokol. The analysis of the Analisis
protocols reveals that both the high-Proficient and low-Proficient learners demonstrate a protokol mengungkapkan bahwa baik Proficient tinggi dan rendah pelajar Mampu menunjukkan
strong sense of metacognitive awareness in terms of strategy use. rasa kuat kesadaran metakognitif dalam hal strategi digunakan. The results suggest that Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa
MSI helps not only in sensitizing the learners to the utility of strategies, but also in MSI membantu tidak hanya dalam peka terhadap peserta didik untuk kegunaan strategi, tetapi juga di
transforming the learners into effective strategy users. mengubah peserta didik menjadi pengguna strategi yang efektif.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY LATAR BELAKANG OF THE STUDI
A common learning problem related by Malaysian ESL learners (at Universiti Teknologi Yang umum terkait dengan masalah belajar peserta didik ESL Malaysia (di Universiti Teknologi
MARA for instance) is that they do not know “how” to learn to improve their command MARA misalnya) adalah bahwa mereka tidak tahu "bagaimana" untuk belajar untuk meningkatkan komando
of the English language. dari bahasa Inggris. It seems that the “how” question of learning English still poses a Tampaknya bahwa "bagaimana" pertanyaan tentang belajar bahasa Inggris masih menimbulkan
problem to these learners despite being at a tertiary level, and having learnt English for at masalah pelajar ini walaupun pada tingkat tersier, dan setelah belajar bahasa Inggris untuk di
least 13 years of their schooling experience where English language is taught as a single setidaknya 13 tahun pengalaman pendidikan mereka di mana bahasa Inggris diajarkan sebagai satu
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subject. subyek. One probable explanation for this problem is that, according to Wong (1998, Satu kemungkinan penjelasan untuk masalah ini adalah bahwa, menurut Wong (1998,
287), most Malaysian undergraduates are “practically false beginners”. 287), sebagian besar mahasiswa Malaysia adalah "palsu praktis pemula". This is due to the Hal ini disebabkan oleh
fact that a sizable proportion of students belong to the lower end of the proficiency scale bahwa proporsi yang cukup besar siswa berasal dari ujung bawah skala kemahiran
at the point of entry into the university. pada titik masuk ke universitas. These ESL undergraduates are still struggling in Sarjana ESL ini masih berjuang di
the quest for efficient ways of mastering the English language. pencarian cara-cara yang efisien menguasai bahasa Inggris.
While these learners may have little problem in understanding academic texts in Sementara pelajar ini mungkin hanya memiliki sedikit masalah dalam memahami teks-teks akademis di
Malay, they are most likely in need of conscious instruction in what Wenden (1998) calls Malay, kemungkinan besar mereka membutuhkan instruksi sadar pada apa yang wenden (1998) panggilan
the “know-how” of approaching academic texts in English. yang "know-how" akademis mendekati teks dalam bahasa Inggris. It means that these learners Ini berarti bahwa pelajar tersebut
need to be trained in effective use of learning strategies to take control of their learning harus dilatih dalam penggunaan efektif strategi belajar untuk mengendalikan pembelajaran mereka
process before they can eventually take complete responsibility of their learning or proses sebelum akhirnya mereka dapat mengambil tanggung jawab penuh pembelajaran mereka atau
become autonomous in their overall learning approach. menjadi otonom dalam pendekatan pembelajaran secara keseluruhan. Before a learner can become Sebelum seorang pelajar dapat menjadi
autonomous, he/she needs to acquire the right strategic knowledge that will enable otonom, dia perlu memperoleh pengetahuan strategis yang tepat yang akan memungkinkan
him/her to achieve a critical level of autonomy in order to function independently. dia untuk mencapai tingkat kritis otonomi agar dapat berfungsi secara independen. But Tetapi
what sort of strategic knowledge does a learner need to acquire in order to become macam apa pengetahuan strategis tidak seorang pembelajar perlu mendapatkan untuk menjadi
autonomous? otonom? How can the learner be taught such strategic knowledge in order to become Bagaimana pelajar diajarkan pengetahuan strategis itu untuk menjadi
autonomous in his/her learning process? otonom dalam / proses belajar-nya? One probable way is to teach the learners Salah satu cara yang mungkin adalah mengajar pembelajar
knowledge of learning strategies in order to equip them with useful learning tools to take pengetahuan tentang strategi belajar untuk melengkapi mereka dengan alat pembelajaran yang berguna untuk mengambil
responsibility of their own learning. tanggung jawab belajar mereka sendiri. In other words, through strategy instruction, it Dengan kata lain, melalui strategi pengajaran, itu
provides an opportunity for learners to develop their expertise in strategy use, ie, being memberikan kesempatan bagi pelajar untuk mengembangkan keahlian mereka dalam strategi digunakan, yaitu, yang
able to learn how to learn (Halls & Beggs 1998; Wenden 1998). mampu belajar bagaimana belajar (Aula & Beggs 1998; wenden 1998). The MSI model sets out Model MSI menetapkan
to provide a suitable pedagogical space incorporating relevant social, motivational and untuk memberikan ruang pedagogis yang cocok menggabungkan sosial yang relevan, motivasi dan
metacognitive processes for Malaysian ESL learners to explore and experiment effective proses metakognitif untuk pelajar ESL Malaysia untuk mengeksplorasi dan bereksperimen efektif
use of strategic learning approach (comprising learning strategies) in the context of ESL penggunaan pendekatan pembelajaran strategis (terdiri dari strategi belajar) dalam konteks ESL
reading practice. latihan membaca.
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK KERANGKA TEORITIS
The cognitive view of learning is that it is an active mental process of acquiring, Pandangan kognitif pembelajaran adalah bahwa hal itu adalah proses mental yang aktif memperoleh,
remembering, and using knowledge (Woolfolk 1993). mengingat, dan menggunakan pengetahuan (Woolfolk 1993). Woolfolk elaborates that in a Woolfolk menguraikan bahwa dalam
cognitive view of learning, readers are active processors of information who seek out pandangan kognitif pembelajaran, pembaca aktif informasi prosesor yang mencari
information to solve problems and reorganise what they already know to achieve new informasi untuk memecahkan masalah dan reorganisasi apa yang mereka sudah tahu untuk mencapai baru
learning, through the use of learning strategies . pembelajaran, melalui penggunaan strategi pembelajaran. In terms of learning strategies , knowing Dalam hal strategi pembelajaran, mengetahui
that and knowing how are not sufficient to ensure that learners are able to apply strategies itu dan mengetahui bagaimana tidak cukup untuk memastikan bahwa peserta didik mampu menerapkan strategi

appropriately. tepat. Learners need to learn when and why various strategies are used to Peserta didik perlu belajar kapan dan mengapa berbagai strategi yang digunakan untuk
accomplish different purposes. mencapai tujuan yang berbeda. Paris, Lipson and Wixson (1983) refer to this as Paris, Lipson dan Wixson (1983) menyebutnya sebagai
“conditional knowledge” because it informs learners about the value and situational "Bersyarat pengetahuan" karena pembelajar menginformasikan tentang nilai dan situasional
appropriateness of various strategies. kelayakan dari berbagai strategi. Conditional knowledge may also be referred to as Pengetahuan kondisional juga dapat disebut sebagai
metacognitive knowledge. pengetahuan metakognitif.
Sheorey and Mokhtari (2001) suggest that a reader's metacognitive knowledge Sheorey dan Mokhtari (2001) menunjukkan bahwa pengetahuan metakognitif pembaca
about reading includes an awareness of a variety of reading strategies and that reading is tentang membaca mencakup kesadaran berbagai strategi membaca dan bahwa membaca adalah
influenced by this metacognitive awareness. dipengaruhi oleh kesadaran metakognitif ini. Sheorey and Mokhtari (2001, 433) believe Sheorey dan Mokhtari (2001, 433) percaya
that “it is the combination of conscious awareness of the strategic reading processes and bahwa "itu adalah kombinasi kesadaran membaca strategis proses dan
the actual utilization of reading strategies that distinguishes the skilled from unskilled pemanfaatan aktual strategi membaca yang membedakan terampil dari tidak terampil
readers”. pembaca ". Readers' metacognitive knowledge encompasses knowledge of and control over Pembaca 'pengetahuan metakognitif meliputi pengetahuan dan kontrol atas
their own thinking and text processing (Walczyk 2000). pemikiran mereka sendiri dan pengolahan teks (Walczyk 2000). Metacognition thus involves Metakognitif demikian melibatkan
awareness of one's cognitive processes and the regulation of one's cognitive processes. kesadaran proses-proses kognitif seseorang dan pengaturan proses-proses kognitif seseorang.
In other words, metacognition includes assessing the requirements of the problem, Dengan kata lain, metacognition meliputi penilaian atas persyaratan dari masalah,
constructing a solution plan, selecting an appropriate solution strategy, monitoring membangun solusi rencana, memilih strategi solusi yang tepat, pemantauan
progress towards the goal, and modifying the solution when necessary (Mayer & kemajuan ke arah tujuan, dan mengubah solusi jika diperlukan (Mayer &
Wittrock 1996). Wittrock 1996). Metacognitive knowledge therefore, refers to the deliberate conscious Pengetahuan metakognitif Oleh karena itu, mengacu pada sadar disengaja
control of cognitive activity, which may be categorized into two components namely, pengendalian kegiatan kognitif, yang dapat dikategorikan ke dalam dua komponen yaitu,
knowledge about cognition and regulation of cognition. pengetahuan tentang kognisi dan regulasi kognisi.
Knowledge about cognition Pengetahuan tentang kognisi
Knowledge about cognition includes knowledge about one's own cognitive Pengetahuan tentang kognisi mencakup pengetahuan tentang kognitif sendiri
resources and knowledge about how compatible the demands of learning situations are sumber daya dan pengetahuan tentang bagaimana kompatibel tuntutan situasi belajar
with one's own resources. dengan sumber daya sendiri. Knowledge of cognition in reading refers to one's awareness Pengetahuan kognisi dalam membaca mengacu pada satu kesadaran
of the purposes and goals of reading as well as the knowledge of learning strategies that dari tujuan dan tujuan membaca serta pengetahuan tentang strategi belajar
contributes to comprehension (Meloth 1990). memberikan kontribusi untuk pemahaman (Meloth 1990). Knowledge of metacognitive learning Pengetahuan tentang pembelajaran metakognitif
strategies is essential if readers are to effectively regulate their strategy use while reading. strategi sangat penting jika pembaca untuk secara efektif mengatur strategi mereka gunakan saat membaca.
Metacognitive awareness is influenced by variables associated with learners, tasks, and Kesadaran metakognitif dipengaruhi oleh variabel yang berhubungan dengan pelajar, tugas, dan
strategies (Duell 1986). strategi (Duell 1986). Task, strategy, and learner variables typically interact when Tugas, strategi, dan variabel pelajar biasanya berinteraksi ketika
students engage in metacognitive activities. siswa terlibat dalam kegiatan metakognitif. Learners consider the type and length of Pelajar mempertimbangkan jenis dan panjang
material to be learned (task), the potential strategies to be used (strategy), and their skill bahan yang harus dipelajari (tugas), potensi strategi yang akan digunakan (strategi), dan keterampilan
at using various strategies (learner). dalam menggunakan berbagai strategi (pelajar). If learners think that note taking and underlining are Jika peserta didik berpikir bahwa pencatatan dan menggarisbawahi adalah
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good strategies for identifying main points of a technical article and that they are good at strategi yang baik untuk mengidentifikasi titik-titik utama dari artikel teknis dan bahwa mereka baik di
underlining but poor at taking notes, they should decide to underline. menggarisbawahi tetapi miskin pada mencatat, mereka harus memutuskan untuk menggarisbawahi. As Schunk (2000) Sebagai SCHUNK (2000)
notes, learners construct metacognitive theories that include knowledge and strategies catatan, pelajar metakognitif membangun teori-teori yang mencakup pengetahuan dan strategi
that they believe will be effective in a given situation. bahwa mereka percaya akan efektif dalam situasi tertentu. Four major macro metacognitive Empat makro utama metakognitif
strategy categories include planning, comprehension monitoring, problem solving and, kategori meliputi strategi perencanaan, pemantauan pemahaman, pemecahan masalah dan,
evaluating and modifying (Appendix 1). mengevaluasi dan memodifikasi (Lampiran 1).
Knowledge of Learning strategies Pengetahuan mengenai strategi Belajar
Learning strategy is a conscious cognitive plan, intentionally selected and devised by a Strategi pembelajaran adalah rencana kognitif sadar, sengaja dipilih dan dirancang oleh
learner to implement specific actions or techniques in the form of largely observable pelajar untuk melaksanakan tindakan-tindakan tertentu atau teknik-teknik dalam bentuk diamati sebagian besar
tactics to facilitate the acquisition, storage, retrieval, and use of information, with its taktik untuk memfasilitasi akuisisi, penyimpanan, pencarian, dan penggunaan informasi, dengan
implementation being intended to effect understanding and learning (Philip 2005, 25). pelaksanaan efek yang dimaksudkan untuk pemahaman dan pembelajaran (Philip 2005, 25).
The most important feature of a strategy is that it is conscious and intended, and therefore Yang paling penting dari sebuah strategi adalah bahwa sadar dan dimaksudkan, dan karena
controllable action (Oxford 1990; O'Malley & Chamot 1990; 1994; MacIntyre 1994; dikendalikan action (Oxford 1990; O'Malley & Chamot 1990; 1994; MacIntyre 1994;
Pressley & McCormick 1995; Cohen 1998; Chamot et. Pressley & McCormick, 1995; Cohen 1998; Chamot et. al. al. 1999). 1999). Garner (1990, 64) Garner (1990, 64)
furthur supports this point by highlighting the fact that learner control is a significant furthur mendukung hal ini dengan menggarisbawahi fakta bahwa kontrol pelajar yang signifikan
feature of any strategy and though certain subroutines may be learned to a point of fitur dari setiap strategi dan meskipun subrutin tertentu dapat belajar titik
automaticity, strategies are generally deliberate, planned, consciously engaged-in otomatisitas, strategi umumnya disengaja, direncanakan, secara sadar terlibat-dalam
activities. kegiatan.
According to MacIntyre (1994), what is most important is that, a learning strategy Menurut MacIntyre (1994), apa yang paling penting adalah bahwa, strategi belajar
must be intentional and freely chosen. harus disengaja dan dipilih secara bebas. Thus a student must be aware of the strategy Jadi mahasiswa harus menyadari strategi
before it can be used. sebelum dapat digunakan. In the context of reading, this definition concurs with that offered Dalam konteks membaca, definisi ini sepakat dengan yang ditawarkan
by Johnson-Glenberg (2000) that, a strategy is a conscious, intentional and yet flexible oleh Johnson-Glenberg (2000) bahwa, sebuah strategi adalah sadar, disengaja namun fleksibel
tool that readers use to update their understanding of a text. alat yang digunakan untuk memperbarui pembaca pemahaman mereka terhadap teks. A good strategy involves Sebuah strategi yang baik melibatkan
multiple cognitive subroutines. beberapa subrutin kognitif. For instance, “generating questions” about the text is a Misalnya, "menimbulkan pertanyaan" tentang teks adalah
strategy that relies on searching the text, combining information, evaluating the worth of strategi yang mengandalkan mencari teks, menggabungkan informasi, mengevaluasi nilai
the question, and judging whether one could answer the question. pertanyaan, dan menilai apakah ada yang bisa menjawab pertanyaan. It is the implementation Ini adalah pelaksanaan
of these sorts of subroutines that should lead to better reading comprehension. macam ini subrutin yang harus mengarah pada pemahaman bacaan yang lebih baik. A learning Sebuah pembelajaran
strategy, which involves sub-routines, may be presented diagrammatically as follows: strategi, yang melibatkan sub-rutin, dapat disajikan dalam diagram sebagai berikut:
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Strategy (eg, Generating Questions) Strategi (misalnya, Generating Pertanyaan)
Conscious Cognitive Plan (searching the text for information Sadar Kognitif Rencana (teks untuk mencari informasi
to answer questions) untuk menjawab pertanyaan)
Sub-routines/Tactics (combining relevant information to Sub-routines/Tactics (menggabungkan informasi yang relevan untuk
answer questions) menjawab pertanyaan)
Reading Tasks (understanding task better via generating Membaca Tugas (tugas pemahaman yang lebih baik melalui pembangkit
question strategy) Pertanyaan strategi)
FIGURE 1 Diagrammatic presentation of a learning strategy used in reading GAMBAR 1 diagram presentasi dari sebuah strategi pembelajaran yang digunakan dalam membaca
Being aware of the various strategies, however, is still insufficient; rather, learners Menyadari berbagai strategi, bagaimanapun, masih tidak memadai, melainkan pembelajar
need to be able to regulate it. harus mampu mengaturnya. Regulation refers to the ability to follow one's strategic Peraturan mengacu pada kemampuan untuk mengikuti salah satu strategis
chosen plan and to be able to monitor its effectiveness. rencana dipilih dan untuk dapat memantau efektivitas. It is vital that learners learn how Sangat penting bahwa peserta didik belajar bagaimana
to regulate their own cognition. untuk mengatur kognisi mereka sendiri.
Regulation of cognition Peraturan kognisi
Regulation of cognition involves two main processes namely, strategic formulation and Peraturan kognisi melibatkan dua proses utama yaitu, formulasi strategis dan
strategic implementation of strategies. pelaksanaan strategi strategis.
(a) Strategic formulation (a) Strategis formulasi
Initially, learners analyse an activity or situation in terms of the activity's goal, Awalnya, pelajar menganalisis suatu aktivitas atau situasi dalam kaitannya dengan tujuan kegiatan,
aspects of the situation relevant to that goal, important personal characteristics, and aspek dari situasi yang relevan dengan tujuan, karakteristik pribadi yang penting, dan
potentially useful self-regulated learning strategies. berpotensi berguna pembelajaran mandiri strategi. Snowman (cited in Schunk 2000, Snowman (dikutip dalam SCHUNK 2000,
382) calls this “strategic skills.” The next step, which is still part of strategic skills, is for 382) menyebut ini "keterampilan strategis." Langkah berikutnya, yang masih merupakan bagian dari keterampilan strategis, adalah untuk
learners to develop a strategy or plan along the following lines: “Given this task to be pelajar untuk mengembangkan suatu strategi atau rencana sepanjang baris berikut: "Mengingat tugas ini akan
accomplished at this time and place according to these criteria and given these personal dilakukan pada waktu dan tempat yang sesuai dengan kriteria ini dan diberi pribadi ini
characteristics, I should use these procedures to accomplish the goal”. karakteristik, saya harus menggunakan prosedur ini untuk mencapai tujuan ".
(b) Strategic implementation (b) pelaksanaan Strategis
6 6
Learners next implement the plans, monitor and evaluate their goal progress, and Pelajar melaksanakan rencana berikutnya, memonitor dan mengevaluasi kemajuan tujuan mereka, dan
modify the strategy when the plans are not producing successful goal progress. mengubah strategi ketika rencana tidak menghasilkan kemajuan tujuan sukses. In the Dalam
context of this study, these strategies are implemented within a strategic processing konteks penelitian ini, strategi ini diimplementasikan dalam pemrosesan strategis
framework called Self-Regulated Approach to Strategic Learning (SRSL) . The SRSL kerangka berjudul Self-Regulated Learning Pendekatan Strategis (SRSL). The SRSL
processing framework helps facilitate the learner's effective use of strategies. kerangka pengolahan membantu memfasilitasi peserta didik menggunakan strategi yang efektif. It Ini
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comprises seven macro metacognitive strategies represented by an acronym, APICPEM terdiri dari tujuh makro strategi metakognitif diwakili oleh akronim, APICPEM
as illustrated in Figure 2 (Appendix 2). seperti yang diilustrasikan pada Gambar 2 (Lampiran 2). The rationale for using SRSL is to enable an Dasar pemikiran untuk menggunakan SRSL adalah untuk memungkinkan suatu
effective coordination of strategy use. strategi koordinasi yang efektif digunakan. Coordination of strategies will ensure that Koordinasi strategi akan memastikan bahwa
appropriate combination of strategies is being implemented. kombinasi strategi yang sedang dilaksanakan. This is essential because Hal ini penting karena
according to Chamot et. menurut Chamot et. al. al. (1999, 32), “strategies are often more powerful when they are (1999, 32), "strategi sering kali lebih kuat ketika mereka
used in appropriate combinations.” For example, when a learner starts reading a text, digunakan dalam kombinasi yang sesuai. "Sebagai contoh, ketika seorang pelajar mulai membaca teks,
he/she will most likely engage a Planning strategy - make a preview of the text to help ia kemungkinan besar akan terlibat strategi Perencanaan - membuat preview teks untuk membantu
predict the content of the text. memprediksi isi teks. While making a preview, the learner may also engage a Sementara membuat preview, pelajar mungkin juga melibatkan
comprehension monitoring strategy – attending selectively to specialised terms to aid pemahaman strategi monitoring - menghadiri selektif untuk persyaratan khusus untuk membantu
prediction of content. prediksi konten. The learner should then be able to activate his/her prior knowledge Pelajar harus kemudian dapat mengaktifkan nya / pengetahuan nya
that is related to the text content in question. yang berhubungan dengan konten teks yang bersangkutan. By engaging strategies in appropriate Dengan melibatkan strategi yang sesuai
combinations, the learner is able to strategise his/her reading move for a more effective kombinasi, pelajar dapat strategise nya / dia membaca bergerak untuk yang lebih efektif
comprehension of the text. pemahaman teks.

Each macro metacognitive strategy comprises micro or sub-strategies that are Setiap strategi metakognitif terdiri makro mikro atau sub-strategi yang
implemented in the actual learning process (Appendix 3). dilaksanakan dalam proses pembelajaran aktual (Lampiran 3). Based on the SRSL approach, Berdasarkan pendekatan SRSL,
learners start their processing by analysing and planning their learning goals. pelajar mulai memproses mereka dengan menganalisis dan merencanakan tujuan pembelajaran. Learners Pelajar
also decide and select potentially useful strategies from a given list to be implemented juga memutuskan dan memilih strategi yang mungkin bermanfaat dari daftar yang diberikan yang akan dilaksanakan
accordingly (Appendix 3). sesuai (Lampiran 3). Strategies selected are normally those appropriate for Strategi yang dipilih biasanya yang cocok untuk
comprehension monitoring and problem solving and evaluation. pemahaman dan pemecahan masalah monitoring dan evaluasi. As strategies are used, Sebagai strategi yang digunakan,
they are evaluated for their effects. mereka dievaluasi untuk efek mereka. An ineffective strategy will call for modification and Strategi yang tidak efektif akan menelepon untuk modifikasi dan
subsequently, re-implementation. kemudian, kembali implementasi. At the evaluation stage, the learner also needs to Pada tahap evaluasi, pelajar juga perlu
compare whether or not they have achieved the learning goal(s), which they set early in membandingkan apakah atau tidak mereka telah mencapai tujuan pembelajaran (s), yang mereka tetapkan di awal
the task. tugas. If the learner finds that the goal remains unattainable, he/she needs to re- Jika pelajar menemukan bahwa tujuannya tetap tidak tercapai, ia / dia perlu kembali
evaluate the learning goal(s) which are probably unrealistic enough to be pursued using mengevaluasi tujuan pembelajaran (s) yang mungkin cukup realistis untuk dikejar menggunakan
certain strategies. strategi-strategi tertentu. The learner might need to strive for realistic goals using other strategies Pelajar mungkin perlu berjuang untuk mencapai tujuan realistis menggunakan strategi lain
or modified strategies and looking at the immediate demands of the task at hand. atau diubah strategi dan melihat langsung tuntutan tugas di tangan.
The SRSL framework is recursive in nature as it accommodates the actual steps in Kerangka kerja yang SRSL rekursif di alam seperti menampung langkah-langkah yang sebenarnya dalam
mental processing. proses mental. Although it is recursive, it is structured in such a way that it enables Walaupun secara recursive, itu disusun sedemikian rupa sehingga memungkinkan
learners to engage each macro-strategy systematically. peserta didik untuk terlibat setiap makro-strategi sistematis. The order of use of each strategy, Urutan penggunaan setiap strategi,
however, is not strictly sequential even though the tendency for its use to be such is quite Namun, tidak sepenuhnya berurutan meskipun kecenderungan penggunaannya untuk menjadi seperti itu cukup
unavoidable. tidak dapat dihindari. The SRSL model takes into consideration the fact that learners may have Model yang SRSL mempertimbangkan fakta bahwa pelajar mungkin
learnt the various features of a particular strategy, but applications of those features in mempelajari berbagai fitur strategi tertentu, tetapi aplikasi fitur tersebut di
actual context may entail some slight or massive modifications. konteks yang sebenarnya mungkin memerlukan beberapa modifikasi kecil atau besar. Besides, a particular Selain itu, khusus
strategy may need to be applied in combination with other strategies to gain optimal strategi mungkin perlu diterapkan dalam kombinasi dengan strategi lain untuk mendapatkan optimal
success. sukses. For example, the elaboration strategy, which involves engaging one's prior Sebagai contoh, strategi elaborasi, yang melibatkan melibatkan seseorang sebelum
knowledge, may be facilitated by an inference strategy which involves looking for pengetahuan, dapat difasilitasi oleh sebuah kesimpulan strategi yang melibatkan cari
contextual clues to affect comprehension. petunjuk kontekstual mempengaruhi pemahaman. The SRSL structure guides learners on how Panduan struktur yang SRSL pelajar tentang bagaimana
they can manipulate their strategies systematically. mereka dapat memanipulasi strategi mereka secara sistematis. The SRSL therefore allows enough Karena itu yang SRSL cukup memungkinkan
room for learners to explore strategy use while simultaneously constructing their own ruang bagi peserta didik untuk mengeksplorasi strategi yang digunakan saat bersamaan membangun mereka sendiri
understanding of the given tasks. pemahaman tentang tugas yang diberikan.
The SRSL approach, therefore, acts as a strategic processing framework for Pendekatan yang SRSL Oleh karena itu, bertindak sebagai kerangka kerja untuk pemrosesan strategis
effective applications and use of strategies in academic reading. aplikasi yang efektif dan penggunaan strategi di bidang akademik membaca. It is important for Penting bagi
learners to engage SRSL in academic reading task to the point of automaticity as it SRSL peserta didik untuk terlibat dalam tugas membaca akademik titik otomatisitas seperti
enables learners to know not only what strategies to use, but also when, where, and how memungkinkan pelajar untuk mengetahui tidak hanya apa strategi untuk menggunakan, tetapi juga kapan, di mana, dan bagaimana
to use them. untuk menggunakannya. Mokhtari and Reichard (2002) support the use of self-regulated learning Mokhtari dan Reichard (2002) mendukung penggunaan pembelajaran mandiri

approach such as SRSL because they believe that a good reader will normally start Pendekatan seperti SRSL karena mereka percaya bahwa pembaca yang baik biasanya akan memulai
his/her reading move by setting a reading goal, for instance, to find an item in a passage. nya / dia membaca bergerak dengan menetapkan tujuan membaca, misalnya, untuk menemukan salah satu item dalam suatu bagian.
She or he (a good reader) will then select an efficient strategy for meeting her/his goal Dia atau dia (pembaca yang baik) akan kemudian memilih strategi yang efisien untuk bertemu dengannya / tujuannya
from a large repertoire to avoid wasted time and effort. dari repertoar besar untuk menghindari membuang-buang waktu dan usaha. The learner might choose Pelajar dapat memilih
skimming the text for certain key words as the strategy to be implemented. membaca sekilas teks untuk kata kunci tertentu sebagai strategi yang akan diterapkan. The reader Pembaca
then will determine if the strategy is successful. kemudian akan menentukan apakah strategi tersebut berhasil. If not, an alternative strategy may be Jika tidak, strategi alternatif mungkin
used; for instance, the reader may make a preview of the various titles in the reading text digunakan; misalnya, pembaca dapat membuat preview dari berbagai judul dalam teks bacaan
to form an overall picture of the text in question. untuk membentuk gambaran keseluruhan teks yang bersangkutan. Such an example of constructing Seperti contoh membangun
meaning from text highlights how SRSL can be of practical use to learners engaged in a makna dari teks menyoroti bagaimana SRSL praktis dapat digunakan untuk pelajar terlibat dalam
reading task. tugas membaca.
Metacognitive Strategy Instruction (MSI) Strategi metakognitif Instruksi (MSI)
In metacognitive strategy instruction, the teacher should teach not only how to use Dalam strategi metakognitif pengajaran, guru harus mengajar tidak hanya cara menggunakan
strategies, but rather when and why strategies are used in certain learning contexts. strategi, melainkan kapan dan mengapa strategi yang digunakan dalam konteks pembelajaran tertentu. This Ini
involves teaching learners metacognitive knowledge and skills or conditional knowledge, belajar mengajar metakognitif melibatkan pengetahuan dan keterampilan atau pengetahuan kondisional,
that is, the capacity to reflect upon one's own thinking, and thereby to monitor and yaitu, kemampuan untuk merenungkan pemikiran sendiri, dan dengan demikian untuk memantau dan
manage it (Greeno et. al. 1996). mengelolanya (Greeno et. al. 1996). MSI provides direct and informed strategy instruction for MSI menyediakan strategi informasi langsung dan instruksi untuk
reading (Appendix 3). membaca (Lampiran 3). This means that conditional knowledge is communicated when the Ini berarti bahwa pengetahuan kondisional dikomunikasikan ketika
teacher explains to learners why a strategy is important, when and where to use the guru menjelaskan kepada pelajar mengapa strategi itu penting, kapan dan di mana untuk menggunakan
strategy, and how to evaluate its effectiveness (Cross & Paris 1988; Winograd & Hare strategi, dan bagaimana mengevaluasi efektivitas (Cross & Paris 1988; Winograd & Hare
1988). 1988). Similarly, Mayer and Wittrock (1996) view that an instructional implication of the Demikian pula, Mayer dan Wittrock (1996) melihat bahwa sebuah instruksional implikasi dari
metacognitive regulation is that learners need to learn when to use various cognitive peraturan metakognitif adalah bahwa peserta didik perlu belajar kapan harus menggunakan berbagai kognitif
processes, including being aware of their processes, monitoring their cognitive processes, proses, termasuk menyadari proses mereka, memantau proses kognitif mereka,
and regulating their cognitive processes. dan mengatur proses-proses kognitif mereka. Garner (1990) emphasises the importance of Garner (1990) menekankan pentingnya
conditional knowledge in strategic reading behaviour. bersyarat pengetahuan dalam membaca strategis perilaku. It is argued that learners' failure or Saya berpendapat bahwa peserta didik gagal atau
success in using strategies depends on the settings in which the strategies are learned and sukses dalam menggunakan strategi tergantung pada pengaturan di mana strategi dipelajari dan
the settings in which strategies should be applied. pengaturan dalam strategi yang harus diterapkan. Indeed, as Lorch, Lorch and Klusewitz Memang, seperti Lorch, Lorch dan Klusewitz
(1993) concur, conditional knowledge is crucial to the strategic control of reading. (1993) setuju, pengetahuan kondisional sangat penting untuk mengendalikan strategis membaca.
Without knowledge of when and why to apply a given strategy, reading cannot be Tanpa pengetahuan tentang kapan dan mengapa untuk menerapkan strategi tertentu, membaca tidak dapat
flexible and adaptive. fleksibel dan adaptif. Strategic readers are not characterised by the volume of tactics that Strategis pembaca tidak ditandai oleh volume taktik yang
they use but rather by the selection of appropriate strategies that fit the particular text, mereka gunakan tetapi oleh pemilihan strategi yang tepat yang sesuai dengan teks tertentu,
purpose, and occasion (Paris et. al. 1991, 611). tujuan, dan kesempatan (Paris et. al. 1991, 611).
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In the context of MSI, learners should be taught not only about learning strategies, Dalam konteks MSI, pelajar harus diajarkan tidak hanya tentang strategi pembelajaran,
but also about when to use them and how to use them best. tetapi juga tentang kapan menggunakannya dan bagaimana menggunakannya terbaik. Learners should be instructed Pelajar harus diinstruksikan
on how to choose the best and most appropriate strategy in a given situation. tentang cara memilih yang terbaik dan strategi yang paling tepat dalam situasi tertentu. By Oleh
examining and monitoring their use of learning strategies, learners have more chances of memeriksa dan memantau penggunaan strategi pembelajaran, peserta didik memiliki lebih banyak peluang
success in meeting their learning goals. kesuksesan dalam memenuhi tujuan pembelajaran mereka. Learners should be explicitly taught that once Pelajar harus secara eksplisit mengajarkan bahwa sekali
they have selected and begun to use the specific strategies, they need to check mereka telah dipilih dan mulai menggunakan strategi khusus, mereka perlu memeriksa
periodically whether or not those strategies are effective and being used as intended. berkala apakah atau tidak strategi-strategi yang efektif dan yang digunakan sebagaimana dimaksud.
Knowing how to use a combination of strategies in an orchestrated fashion is an Mengetahui bagaimana menggunakan kombinasi strategi dalam mengatur mode adalah
important metacognitive skill. keterampilan metakognitif penting. Research has shown that successful language learners tend Penelitian telah menunjukkan bahwa pembelajar bahasa yang berhasil cenderung
to select strategies that work well together in a highly orchestrated way, tailored to the untuk memilih strategi yang bekerja sama dengan baik dalam cara yang sangat tersusun, disesuaikan dengan
requirements of the language task. persyaratan tugas bahasa. These learners can easily explain the strategies they Pelajar ini dapat dengan mudah menjelaskan strategi yang mereka
use and why they employ them. menggunakan dan mengapa mereka mempekerjakan mereka. Evaluating effectiveness of strategy use involves self- Mengevaluasi efektivitas strategi menggunakan melibatkan diri
questioning and evaluating the whole cycle of planning, selecting, using, monitoring and mempertanyakan dan mengevaluasi seluruh siklus perencanaan, memilih, menggunakan, pemantauan dan
orchestration of strategies. strategi orkestrasi. The significance of metacognitive knowledge in influencing Pentingnya pengetahuan metakognitif dalam mempengaruhi
strategy use implies that reading strategy instruction should, to a large extent, be strategi menggunakan strategi menyiratkan bahwa membaca instruksi harus, untuk sebagian besar, akan
metacognitive in approach. metakognitif dalam pendekatan. Roehler and Duffy (in Winograd & Hare 1988, 123) point out Roehler dan Duffy (dalam Winograd & Hare 1988, 123) menunjukkan
that teacher explanations of the processes are intended to be metacognitive and not penjelasan guru bahwa proses dimaksudkan untuk menjadi metakognitif dan tidak
mechanistic. mekanistik. These explanations make students aware of the purpose of the skill and how Penjelasan ini membuat siswa sadar akan tujuan dari keterampilan dan bagaimana
successful readers use it to activate, monitor, regulate, and make sense out of text, pembaca berhasil menggunakannya untuk mengaktifkan, memantau, mengatur, dan masuk akal dari teks,
creating in students an awareness and a conscious realization of the function and utility of siswa menciptakan kesadaran dan realisasi sadar fungsi dan kegunaan
reading skills and the linkages between these processes and the activities of reading. keterampilan membaca dan keterkaitan antara proses dan kegiatan membaca.
Co-regulation of cognition Co-peraturan kognisi
In MSI, both the teacher and learners are engaged in what McCaslin and Hickey (2001) Dalam MSI, baik guru dan peserta didik terlibat dalam apa yang McCaslin dan Hickey (2001)
term “co-regulation”, which connotes shared/joint responsibility. Istilah "co-regulasi", yang berkonotasi berbagi / tanggung jawab bersama. The interaction involves Melibatkan interaksi
eventual shift of shared responsibility to an independent one. akhirnya pergeseran tanggung jawab bersama untuk independen satu. It allows the responsibility Hal ini memungkinkan tanggung jawab
for generating, applying and monitoring effective strategies being transferred from untuk menghasilkan, penerapan dan pemantauan strategi efektif yang ditransfer dari
teacher to learner. guru kepada pelajar. When scaffolding for strategy use, a teacher normally has the objective Ketika strategi perancah untuk digunakan, seorang guru biasanya mempunyai tujuan
to support the learner's strategy use until support can be withdrawn (Many 2002). untuk mendukung strategi pelajar menggunakan dukungan sampai dapat ditarik (Banyak 2002). The Itu
goal is for the learner to be capable of independently identifying situations where the Tujuannya adalah untuk pelajar yang akan mampu secara mandiri mengidentifikasi situasi dimana
strategy can be useful and to be able to implement that strategy as needed. strategi dapat bermanfaat dan untuk dapat menerapkan strategi yang diperlukan. However, Akan tetapi,
scaffolding may not end with learners gaining independence but instead as Palincsar and perancah tidak boleh diakhiri dengan pelajar memperoleh kemerdekaan melainkan sebagai Palincsar dan

Brown's (1984) cross-tutoring system called “reciprocal teaching” depicts clearly, Brown (1984) cross-les sistem yang disebut "mengajar timbal balik" menggambarkan dengan jelas,
scaffolding can effectively be carried out through shared negotiation of meaning or perancah secara efektif dapat dilakukan melalui negosiasi berbagi makna atau
conceptual scaffolding (Many 2002). konseptual perancah (Banyak 2002). In this approach, the teacher initiates the reading Dalam pendekatan ini, guru memulai pembacaan
task. tugas. This is followed by learners who act first as learners and then as teacher as they Hal ini diikuti oleh peserta didik yang bertindak pertama sebagai pelajar dan kemudian sebagai guru mereka
teach their peers how to use strategies such as self-questioning during reading. mengajarkan rekan-rekan mereka bagaimana menggunakan strategi seperti mempertanyakan diri selama membaca. What Apa
differentiates the teacher from the learners is the level of knowledge as the teacher membedakan guru dari peserta didik adalah tingkat pengetahuan sebagai guru
assumes a competent model or the knower. mengasumsikan model atau yang kompeten yang mengetahui. Being the knower, the teacher holds the Menjadi yang tahu, guru memegang
responsibility of providing the less knower with the required information. tanggung jawab menyediakan kurang MahaMengetahui dengan informasi yang diperlukan. Successful Sukses
instruction allows learners to interact with teachers and peers and to assume equal instruksi memungkinkan peserta didik untuk berinteraksi dengan guru dan rekan-rekan dan untuk mengasumsikan sama
partnership in learning. kemitraan dalam belajar. In such equal partnership, learners and teachers collaborate more Dalam kemitraan sejajar, peserta didik dan guru bekerja sama lebih
as equal social partners in a learning enterprise. sebagai sama mitra sosial dalam perusahaan belajar.
Sharing of responsibility via co-regulation leads to making learners Berbagi tanggung jawab melalui co-peraturan mengarah untuk membuat pembelajar
interdependent as they learn to interact to make meanings. interdependen ketika mereka belajar untuk berinteraksi untuk membuat makna. Being interdependent, learners Menjadi saling tergantung, pelajar
should be able to 'produce, clarify issues, propose solutions and make a difference to harus dapat 'menghasilkan, memperjelas masalah, mengajukan solusi dan membuat perbedaan untuk
their world through their learning” (Halls & Beggs 1998, 33). dunia mereka melalui pembelajaran mereka "(Halls & Beggs 1998, 33). In other words, through co- Dengan kata lain, melalui co -
regulation learners are able to learn to develop their own voices within their social peraturan peserta didik dapat belajar untuk mengembangkan suara mereka sendiri di dalam sosial mereka
classroom contexts to negotiate their meanings interdependently. konteks kelas untuk menegosiasikan makna mereka interdependently. Being interdependent, Menjadi saling tergantung,
learners tend to construct and reconstruct their identities as they co-construct knowledge peserta didik cenderung untuk membangun dan merekonstruksi identitas mereka ketika mereka bersama-sama membangun pengetahuan
with their teacher and peers. dengan guru dan teman-teman. The learners learn to monitor and regulate their roles Pembelajar belajar untuk memonitor dan mengatur peran mereka
according to the immediate situation and audience and may switch among different sets sesuai dengan situasi dan penonton langsung dan dapat beralih di antara perangkat yang berbeda
of identities for the different roles (Paris et. al. 2001). identitas untuk peran-peran yang berbeda (Paris et. al. 2001). In so doing, learners are taking Dengan demikian, pelajar mengambil
risks as they co-participate in the verbal communication. risiko ketika mereka bersama-sama berpartisipasi dalam komunikasi verbal. It is by taking such risks that Ini adalah dengan mengambil risiko seperti itu
learners, according to Halls and Beggs (1998), can develop their own perspectives or pelajar, menurut Aula dan Beggs (1998), dapat mengembangkan perspektif mereka sendiri atau
voices through interaction and interdependence which is what Halls & Beggs (1998) view suara melalui interaksi dan saling ketergantungan yang merupakan apa yang Halls & Beggs (1998) view
as learner autonomy. sebagai otonomi pelajar. Being interdependently autonomous, according to Halls and Beggs Menjadi interdependently otonom, menurut Aula dan Beggs
(1998, 37), is “about learners taking risks as interdependent language users, as legitimate (1998, 37), adalah "tentang belajar mengambil risiko sebagai pengguna bahasa saling terkait, seperti sah
producers of language within social groups both inside and outside the classroom.” MSI produsen bahasa dalam kelompok-kelompok sosial baik di dalam maupun di luar kelas. "MSI
thus allows learners the freedom to be themselves as they assume appropriate sehingga memungkinkan peserta didik kebebasan untuk menjadi diri mereka sendiri karena mereka menganggap sesuai
identities/roles while co-constructing meaning interdependently. identitas / peran sementara rekan-makna membangun interdependently.
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METHOD METODE
Research Question Pertanyaan Penelitian
What are the actual illustrations of strategy use as occurred in actual reading task Apa sebenarnya strategi ilustrasi digunakan sebagai bacaan yang sebenarnya terjadi dalam tugas
identified from the learner's retrospective written recall protocols (RWP)? diidentifikasi dari pelajar's retrospektif ditulis ingat protokol (RWP)?
The research question addresses the specific aim: to explore the actual process of Pertanyaan penelitian alamat tujuan spesifik: untuk mengeksplorasi proses sebenarnya
strategy use via retrospective written recall protocols (RWP). strategi menggunakan retrospektif melalui protokol ingat tertulis (RWP). What is of central concern Apa yang berasal dari pusat perhatian
is that it is possible to find out how learners are able to reflect on the strategy knowledge adalah bahwa hal itu adalah mungkin untuk mengetahui bagaimana peserta didik mampu merefleksikan pengetahuan strategi
they gained from the MSI sessions via RWP: a process engaged by learners to mereka yang diperoleh dari sesi MSI melalui RWP: suatu proses yang terlibat oleh peserta didik untuk
immediately recall their recently accomplished strategic processing experiences in text segera ingat baru-baru ini mereka capai pengalaman pengolahan strategis dalam teks
processing task (reading), ie, recalling in written form their retrospective text processing pengolahan tugas (membaca), yaitu, mengingat dalam bentuk tertulis pengolahan teks retrospektif mereka
experiences. pengalaman.
Participants Peserta
The sample used in this study was selected from a group of undergraduates reading Sampel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini dipilih dari sekelompok sarjana membaca
business administration at UiTM Sarawak Campus. uitm administrasi bisnis di Kampus Sarawak. These 45 undergraduates had 45 ini sarjana telah
previously completed their diploma courses at UiTM. sebelumnya menyelesaikan diploma kursus di uitm. They were in their first year of a Mereka berada di tahun pertama mereka yang
three-year BBA (Bachelor in Business Administration) study programme. tiga tahun BBA (Bachelor of Business Administration) program studi. English is used Bahasa Inggris digunakan
as the main medium of instruction. sebagai pengantar utama. These students need to complete a number of English Para mahasiswa harus menyelesaikan sejumlah inggris
Language courses, one of which is an academic reading course. Kursus bahasa, salah satunya adalah membaca akademis saja. The main rationale for Alasan utama untuk
having academic reading as part of their English Language requirements is that these setelah membaca akademis sebagai bagian dari persyaratan Bahasa Inggris mereka adalah bahwa ini
students need to use reference and textbooks written in English. siswa perlu menggunakan referensi dan buku yang ditulis dalam bahasa Inggris. It is important that these Penting bahwa
students are equipped with the appropriate skills for academic reading. siswa dilengkapi dengan keterampilan yang sesuai untuk membaca akademik.
Classroom process Proses Kelas
The classroom process within MSI session is based on the pedagogical model in Figure 3 Proses kelas dalam sesi MSI didasarkan pada model pedagogis dalam Gambar 3
below. di bawah. The teacher and learner's responsibilities are explained in the context of all the Guru dan tanggung jawab pelajar dijelaskan dalam konteks semua
three phases of instruction. tiga fase pengajaran.

Pre-Instruction Phase Fase pra-Instruksi
In Quadrant I, at the Pre-Instruction Phase, the teacher explicitly models learning Dalam Kuadran I, di Pra-Instruksi Phase, guru secara eksplisit model pembelajaran
strategies to learners through Direct Explanation (see Appendix 1). strategi untuk pelajar melalui Penjelasan Langsung (lihat Lampiran 1). Each feature of a Setiap fitur dari
strategy is clearly explained to the learners. Strategi ini jelas menjelaskan kepada peserta didik. The learners are also introduced to a strategic Para pelajar juga diperkenalkan strategis
learning approach called Self-Regulated Approach to Strategic Learning (SRSL) which is pendekatan pembelajaran berjudul Self-Regulated Learning Pendekatan Strategis (SRSL) yang merupakan
used through strategic implementation of metacognitive, cognitive and socio-affective digunakan melalui implementasi strategi metakognitif, kognitif dan sosio-afektif
strategies. strategi. Strategy training is contextualised in that strategies are taught in the context of Strategi pelatihan contextualised dalam strategi yang diajarkan dalam konteks
actual applications using content-based material. sebenarnya aplikasi yang menggunakan bahan berbasis konten. The major role of the teacher in this Peran utama guru dalam
phase is to explicitly model SRSL strategies while at the same time devote a small fase adalah model secara eksplisit strategi SRSL sementara pada saat yang sama mencurahkan kecil
amount of his/her effort to explicitly motivate learners through encouraging feedback. jumlah-nya / usahanya untuk secara eksplisit memotivasi peserta didik dengan mendorong umpan balik.
The descending arrow in Figure 3 (dotted line) denotes that the amount of effort on Menurun panah pada Gambar 3 (garis titik-titik) menunjukkan bahwa jumlah usaha
modelling and explaining of strategies decreases while the amount of effort on giving pemodelan dan menjelaskan strategi berkurang sementara jumlah usaha untuk memberikan
explicit motivation and encouragement on strategy use increases as the lesson unfolds eksplisit motivasi dan dorongan pada strategi menggunakan meningkat sebagai pelajaran diungkapkan
from pre-instruction through instruction to post instruction. dari pra-instruksi melalui instruksi untuk mengirim instruksi.
In Quadrant II, at the Pre-Instruction Phase, the teacher's role is that of Dalam Kuadran II, di Pra-Instruksi Phase, peran guru adalah bahwa dari
constructive scaffolding. perancah konstruktif. This still involves giving explicit explanation of the various Ini masih melibatkan eksplisit memberikan penjelasan dari berbagai
features of strategies with the intent of assisting learners to move in their Zone of fitur strategi dengan maksud membantu peserta didik untuk bergerak dalam Zona
Proximal Development of strategy knowledge and use. Proximal strategi Pengembangan pengetahuan dan penggunaan. The teacher's amount of effort on Guru jumlah usaha
constructive scaffolding decreases and ultimately becomes reduced into conceptual perancah konstruktif berkurang dan akhirnya menjadi berkurang ke konseptual
scaffolding, as depicted by the descending arrow that cuts through Quadrant II. perancah, seperti digambarkan oleh panah yang menurun memotong Kuadran II. The Itu
learners on the other hand, attend to the teachers explanation while at the same time are
given the freedom to partake in the instruction process with questions, clarifications and
confirmations of understanding. The learners' amount of effort increases, giving them
ample opportunity to gain efficacy and confidence as the lesson unfolds, until ultimately
the learners can consider themselves as being self-efficacious. Quadrant II, illustrates the
space within which strategy instruction is transactional in nature as both the teacher and
learners co-regulate and co-determine the internalisation of strategy knowledge by the
learners. pelajar.
Therefore, at the Pre-Instruction Phase itself, learners are already explicitly taught
SRSL strategies in actual contexts of applications. At this stage, learners are accorded the
opportunity to discover the benefits of strategy use so that as they proceed to the next
phase they are already quite well equipped with strategic learning approach.
Instruction Phase
In Quadrant I, at the Instruction Phase, the teacher would expect that learners are ready to
implement strategies they learned at the Pre-Instruction Phase. The teacher however,
continues to provide re-explanation of SRSL strategies as and when needed by the
learners. pelajar. Giving re-explanation may decrease as learners gain efficacy in strategy use.
Instead, the teacher devotes more effort into motivating learners for their success in
strategy use through verbal praises. This explicit motivation is intended to build learners'
confidence in using strategies.
In Quadrant II, at the Instruction Phase, the teacher re-explains through
conceptual scaffolding whereby he/she (teacher) invites learners' contributions in
understanding a particular strategy use. The teacher shares his/her understanding of
strategy use with learners while simultaneously listens and accepts learners'
understanding of strategy use through dialogical interactions. Besides motivating the
learners, the teacher also gives learners ample opportunity to voice their views and
understandings of strategies to help them gain confidence. The teacher's role of
explaining is more of re-explaining which decreases over time while his role in explicitly
motivating the learners increases. Constructive scaffolding also decreases, but conceptual
scaffolding remains to ensure learners gain efficacy and confidence not only in strategy
use but also in understanding meaning from the text.
Post-Instruction Phase
In Quadrant I, at the Post-Instruction Phase, the teacher continues to motivate learners in
their strategy use. This may be done by asking learners to relate their success in using a
particular strategy, and the teacher provides positive feedback regarding such success.
The teacher focuses almost entirely on encouraging and motivating learners to use
strategies appropriately and effectively.
In Quadrant II, at the Post-Instruction Phase, conceptual scaffolding is
diminishing because at this point it is expected that learners must have gained sufficient
metacognitive knowledge to really become self-efficacious, self-confident and self-
regulated. diatur. As the learners are capable of manipulating their strategy use efficaciously,
they have attained the efficacy of an independent strategy user or more accurately they
have become strategic and self-regulated learners.
Data collection and analysis Pengumpulan data dan analisis
The data were generated by the learners through immediate written recall with the
assistance of the graphic organisers they constructed during the task. Since the data
generated were massive, its analysis will be organised based on indexing categories
comprising literal and interpretive indexing (Mason 2003). Literal indexing is created
based on the major metacognitive strategy components, which include specifically PL
(planning) strategies, CM (comprehension monitoring) strategies, EVA (evaluation)
strategies, and PS (problem-solving) strategies (Appendix 1). This literal indexing
category will be discussed interpretively (Mason 2003), providing as far as possible an
Jilid 1, Bilangan 1, Julai - Disember 2006
interpretive understanding of the strategy use particularly in terms of the learners'
applications of metacognitive knowledge of strategies.
Results and Discussion Hasil dan Diskusi
The written recall protocols were analysed for evidence of strategy use. The occurrences
were reported based on Mason's (2003) literal indexing which are then interpreted
interpretively.
Out of 15 for both selected High-proficient (HP) and Low-proficient (LP)
learners' retrospective recall protocols, only one for each category is illustrated below to
show the extent to which strategic processing was carried out within the SRSL
framework. kerangka kerja.
High Proficient (HP) Learner (HP1)
The HP1's RWP (Appendix 4) was qualitatively analysed for evidence of SRSL
implementation. pelaksanaan. The analysis indicates that HP1 had initialised the SRSL approach as
illustrated in Table 1. digambarkan dalam Tabel 1. HP1's use of planning strategies (PL7, PL6 & PL4) reflects an
awareness of the need to plan before engaging in a reading process. This is a Ini adalah
characteristic of a good reader who is aware of the reading purpose before processing a
text (Pressley & Afflerbach 1995).
HP1's use of CM4 (Comprehension Monitoring 4) implies that HP1 was able to
associate his academic knowledge with the topic in question. This is because Ini karena
comprehension monitoring is largely enabled by prior knowledge (Pressley & Afflerbach,
1995). 1995). The fact that HP1 can activate and connect his prior knowledge with the text at
hand shows that he was able to consciously interact with the text and be in control of his
reading comprehension process. It means that HP1 was able to monitor his
comprehension, as he was aware of how the new information in the text relates to his
previous knowledge. The CM4 strategy therefore helps facilitate HP1's meaning
construction process.
HP1's use of PS2 (Problem Solving 2) was also related to the use of CM4 because
with his existing prior knowledge on the topic, HP1 was able to predict the meanings of
certain concepts in the text through intelligent guessing. The application of PS3 by HP1
implies a characteristic of efficient reading; that he was aware of the need to summarise
Jilid 1, Bilangan 1, Julai - Disember 2006

information in order to get the gist to facilitate comprehension as well as recall of the
text. teks. As HP1 faced difficulty in understanding certain words or concepts, he chose to
employ PS4 and PS5 to assist him in his meaning making. This demonstrates a consistent
awareness on the part of HP1 of the task demands that went beyond his understanding
capacity, and hence initiated a move to source for assistance from his either his teacher or
peers within the activity's social context. HP1 was able to monitor his meaning-
construction process through meaning-negotiation process between himself, the teacher
and the classroom community. HP1's use of PS4 and PS5 reflects a sense of
metacognitive awareness whereby he was aware of the appropriate conditions to apply
those strategies. strategi-strategi itu. It shows that HP1 has the knowledge of when and where (conditional
knowledge) to appropriately use strategies effectively.
This conditional knowledge is also reflected in HP1's use of EVA3 (Evaluation 3)
and EVA4, which shows that HP1 was able to determine whether or not a particular
strategy was effective and, if a particular strategy was found to be ineffective, he was
able to either change or adjust it to meet the task demands. On the whole, HP1's
monitoring process reflects what Baker (in Pressley & Afflerbach 1995, 88) describes as
“greater awareness and control of…(one's) own cognitive activities while reading”.
Baker (in Pressley & Afflerbach 1995) stresses further that such greater metacognitive
awareness is a characteristic of a better reader. HP1's metacognitive awareness is most
likely attributed to the ability of using the SRSL framework which guides the learner's
reading process. Working within the SRSL framework, HP1 demonstrates an ability in
using SRSL strategies which suggests that HP1 is in the direction of becoming
autonomous in his reading approach.

Low-Proficient (LP) Learner (LP1)
The qualitative analysis on LP1's RWP (Appendix 5) shows evidence of strategy use as
illustrated in Table 2 below. LP1 began her reading by making a preview of the text
through the use of PL5. LP1 strategised her reading move using PL2 where she decided
on the strategies she needed to proceed. As part of her planning, LP1 employed PL6 and
PL7 to scan and skim information respectively. This would enable her to get the overall
meaning in the text. Her use of planning strategies signifies a metacognitive awareness of
monitoring her learning process. LP1's eventual interaction with the text shows evidence
of activating prior knowledge via CM3 which was intended to facilitate her meaning
construction process. However, she found CM3 had to be supported by other strategies
such as PS4 and PS5. LP1's use of PS4 and PS5 seems to suggest that she was aware of
the advantage of negotiating meaning with the members of her classroom community.
This again shows a sense of metacognitive awareness of her learning progress; she
needed assistance of her teacher and peers to enhance her meaning construction process.
Jilid 1, Bilangan 1, Julai - Disember 2006

LP1's self-monitoring ability was evident in the use of EVA4, where she changed
the strategy she found ineffective with a more effective one. This ability of monitoring
one's own learning progress reflects an ability in knowing when and where it is
appropriate to use a particular strategy. LP1's strategic behaviour suggests that she had
acquired some aspect of conditional knowledge of regulating strategy use, putting LP1 in
the direction of becoming a strategic reader.
sometimes I get stuck with one strategy like making
a guess on meaning of vocabulary is not effective. When I Ketika saya
cannot I try to ask my friend about it or ask the teacher.
Largely, HP learners in their text-processing process, seemed to indicate a strong
sense of metacognitive awareness, manifestations of strategic behaviours, traits of a
metacognitively sophisticated reader, and ultimately characteristics of autonomous
strategic readers/learners. The LP learners, on the other hand, did not seem to have a
strong sense of metacognitive awareness, lacking in manifestations of strategic
behaviours and reflective of poor readers. However, for these LP learners, despite their
lack of strategic behaviours, did indicate their awareness of strategy use, a sense of
awareness that might enable them to develop into becoming strategic readers given more
practice opportunities. The HP learners had at an advantage over LP learners in terms of
language ability, and the explicit strategy instruction that the former received reinforced
their strategic ability further.
CONCLUSION KESIMPULAN
It is important for learners to become metacognitively autonomous in strategy use
because being metacognitively autonomous (equipped with knowledge of strategy use
actualised through SRSL Approach), learners have “the capacity to function as a
language user , where learning is a result of language use , rather than language study.” It
is the capacity to self-assess/self-correct as well as to select and implement appropriate
learning strategies, often consciously, is a characteristic of an effective autonomous
learner and hence, may be understood as synonymous to “successful strategy user”. Paris Paris
and Cunningham (1996, 135) state that successful strategy users are those who have “a
great deal of knowledge about specific strategies, the settings in which they are
appropriate, and the motivational requirements to use them.” MSI therefore provides not
only instruction in strategies, but also a learning space where learners can actually
experiment using the strategies in real academic contexts. This research provides at least
a window into the learners' actual strategic processing in reading.
Analyse Analyse
A represents analysing , which involves identifying learning goals, important task
aspects, relevant personal characteristics, and potentially useful learning techniques. It Ini
also involves asking questions like what, who, why, when and how. These questions are Pertanyaan-pertanyaan ini
meant to engage the learner's analytical mind before they begin on any task. Once the Setelah
learners start with an analytical, it is easier for them to start their planning move.
Plan Rencana
The first P represents planning , which means formulating plan:
Given this task (…) to be done (…) according to these criteria (…) and given
these personal characteristics (…), I should use these techniques (…).
(Snowman 1986; Schunk 2000)
The planning strategy involves making an overview of the task at hand, and if it is a
reading task, the learner may engage skimming and scanning strategies to help predict the
content of the reading text. The learner may also need to select useful strategies which
they can eventually implement in doing the task proper.
Implement Melaksanakan
I represents implementing , which involves employing tactics to enhance learning and
memory. memori. After making strategy selection at the planning stage, the learner is ready to
implement his/her strategies.
Comprehend Memahami
C represents comprehension monitoring . This entails assessing goal progress to
determine how well tactics are working. The learners need to monitor their understanding
of say, a reading text. This may involve those strategies like double-checking on one’s
comprehension and attending selectively to familiar terms to facilitate one’s
comprehension. pemahaman.
Problem Solve
The second P stands for problem solving , which includes figuring out solutions for given
tasks. tugas. This involves strategies like making inference from contextual clues and making
intelligent or logical guess.
Evaluate Evaluasi
E represents evaluation, whereby after completing part or all a task, learners reflect on
how well it went. This process allows them to see if they carried out their plans
successfully and to check how well strategies implemented helped. Strategic students
assess whether they met their goals for the task and if they did not, they will reason it out
while finding alternative ways to re-implement strategies.
Modify
And M refers to modification; learners will continue using a strategy if the assessment is
positive but modifies it if progress seems inadequate.
Appendix 3 Lampiran 3
Direct explanation of strategies
Direct Langsung
Explanation Penjelasan
• Introduce each strategy explicitly
• Define each strategy explicitly
• Describe each strategy very clearly
• Outline critical features of each strategy
• Explain the significance of each strategy
• Provide reasons/rationales for learning each strategy
• Break down each strategy into components
• Explains the relationship among various components of a
single strategy
• Recommend the use of graphic organiser to facilitate strategy
use menggunakan
• Delineate clearly appropriate circumstances when and where
each strategy may be used
• Show how to evaluate successful or unsuccessful use of each
strategy strategi
• Explain clearly an ineffective use of strategy in some
circumstances keadaan
• Emphasise the importance of evaluating the success of one's
strategy use
• Explain that it is possible to monitor strategy selection and
implementation pelaksanaan
• Initiate modelling of strategies
Jilid 1, Bilangan 1, Julai - Disember 2006

Appendix 4 Lampiran 4
Retrospective Written Protocol – HP1
As I looked at the text, from the title it's clear that it will touch on the stages or
steps of Maslow's Hierarchy of needs. I skimmed the text before reading it. I Aku
also started to look for specific points by looking for main ideas. I drew the chart
to explain my understanding of the text. I tried to fit examples in my mind map
to identify them easily. Some parts, I tried to make an intelligent and logical
guess to get better understanding. I did this a lot when I didn't know the meaning
of words because some words are quite difficult. As far as content is concerned,
I have learned it in my management class so I tried to recall what I already
know. mengetahui. I find it easier to put ideas into short sentence. In summarization, I tend to
integrate events, ideas into shorter phrase. Sometimes in the reading process I
got stuck because of vocabulary. I normally ask my friends or the teacher. I find Saya menemukan
that this helps me to know their meaning.

Appendix 5 Lampiran 5
Retrospective Written Protocol – LP1
I preview the article. I analyse and decide on strategy. I try to scan and then skim
for general ideas. Some parts of the passage are difficult to understand so I try to
recall my background knowledge on the issue. I remember learning about
Maslow's Hierarchy in my diploma days and so I try to apply that and understand
the concept. I review and evaluate my strategies and then modify it and
implement new strategy. This is because, sometimes I get stuck with one strategy
like making a guess on meaning of vocabulary is not effective. When I cannot I
try to ask my friend about it or ask the teacher. So I try to change my strategy to
suit how well can I understand the passage. Sometimes before I asked my
coursemates or teacher, I try looking for some clues in the article so that I can get
the meaning. But not many clues can be found in the article to help understand the
meaning of words. To look for the main points is also difficult, so I try to discuss
with my friend in the class.




Strategi instruksional yang efektif untuk Siswa dengan Learning Disabilities
The most effective methods for teaching children with learning disabilities combined components of direct instruction (teacher-directed lecture, discussion, and learning from books) with components of strategy instruction (teaching ways to learn such as memorization techniques and study skills). Metode yang paling efektif untuk mengajar anak-anak dengan ketidakmampuan belajar komponen gabungan instruksi langsung (guru-directed kuliah, diskusi, dan belajar dari buku-buku) dengan komponen strategi pengajaran (pengajaran cara untuk belajar seperti teknik penghafalan dan kemampuan belajar). However, its effect was greater in reading than in non-reading measures, such as mathematics and social skills. Namun, efeknya lebih besar dalam membaca daripada membaca non-tindakan, seperti matematika dan keterampilan sosial. Within the field of reading, this model is particularly effective for reading comprehension compared to reading recognition. Dalam bidang membaca, model ini sangat efektif untuk pemahaman bacaan dibandingkan dengan membaca pengakuan. We also found that bottom-up instruction (direct instruction only) was more effective than top-down instruction (strategy instruction only) on word recognition, but not on reading comprehension. Kami juga menemukan bahwa instruksi bottom-up (hanya instruksi langsung) lebih efektif daripada instruksi top-down (instruksi strategi hanya) pada kata pengakuan, tetapi tidak pada pemahaman bacaan.
The main instructional components of this combined model include: Instruksional utama komponen model kombinasi ini meliputi:
1. Control of task difficulty – The teacher provided necessary assistance or sequenced tasks from easy to difficult. Pengendalian tugas kesulitan - Para guru memberikan bantuan seperlunya atau tugas diurutkan dari mudah ke sulit. This component was most linked to effect on student achievement. Komponen ini yang paling terkait dengan efek pada pencapaian murid.
2. Small-group instruction - Interactive groups of five or fewer students was another influential component on student achievement. Kelompok kecil instruksi - Interaktif kelompok yang terdiri dari lima atau lebih sedikit siswa komponen lain yang berpengaruh pada prestasi siswa.
3. Directed questioning and responses - A third strongly influential component was the use of structured interactive questioning on process and content. Sutradara pertanyaan dan tanggapan - ketiga komponen sangat berpengaruh adalah penggunaan pertanyaan terstruktur pada proses interaktif dan konten. For example, the teacher directs students to ask questions and summarize responses. Misalnya, guru mengarahkan siswa untuk mengajukan pertanyaan dan meringkas tanggapan.
4. Sequencing (eg, breaking down the task, providing step-by-step prompts); Sequencing (misalnya, meruntuhkan tugas, menyediakan langkah-demi-langkah petunjuk);
5. Drill-repetition-practice (eg, daily testing, repeated practice, sequenced review); Drill-pengulangan-praktek (misalnya, sehari-hari, mengulangi praktek, sequencing review);
6. Segmentation (eg, breaking down skills into parts and then synthesizing the parts into a whole). Segmentation predicts outcomes on phonological measures. Segmentasi (misalnya, meruntuhkan keterampilan menjadi bagian dan kemudian sintesis bagian-bagian menjadi keseluruhan). Segmentasi memprediksi hasil pada langkah-langkah fonologi.
7. Use of technology (eg, computers, presentation media); Penggunaan teknologi (misalnya, komputer, media presentasi);
8. Teacher-modeled problem solving; Guru-model pemecahan masalah;
9. Strategy cues (eg, reminders to use strategies, think-aloud models). Strategi isyarat (misalnya, pengingat untuk menggunakan strategi, berpikir-keras model).
Recommendations Rekomendasi
• Teachers should combine direct instruction with strategy instruction. Guru harus menggabungkan strategi pengajaran langsung dengan instruksi. They should focus on task difficulty, small interactive groups, and structured questioning and directed responses. Mereka harus fokus pada kesulitan tugas, kelompok-kelompok kecil yang interaktif, dan terstruktur diarahkan pertanyaan dan tanggapan.
• Teachers should match instructional techniques to the subject areas in which they are most effective. Guru harus cocok dengan teknik instruksional ke bidang subjek di mana mereka yang paling efektif. For example, reading comprehension should be taught with a combination of direct instruction and strategy instruction. Sebagai contoh, pemahaman bacaan harus diajarkan dengan kombinasi instruksi langsung dan strategi pengajaran. Bottom-up instruction can be used for word recognition but not reading comprehension. Both phonics and whole word methods (whole language) should be used to teach reading. Bottom-up instruksi dapat digunakan untuk pengakuan kata tapi tidak membaca pemahaman. Baik phonics seluruh kata dan metode (seluruh bahasa) harus digunakan untuk mengajar membaca.

Instructional Methods: Activities to Include in Your Lesson Plans
Each student has his or her own learning style. In order to create an effective lesson plan that meets all of these different needs, teachers, tutors, and home school parents should include a variety of instructional methods. This article outlines several useful teaching methods.
No two children are exactly alike. This is true in the classroom as well as out. Each student, after all, has his or her own unique learning style. While some students learn by seeing, others learn by hearing and others learn by doing.
In order for a teacher to be effective she must be able to reach her students using methods that work best for them. Mixing things up in this fashion will also help alleviate boredom, engaging students, and helping them truly retain their lessons.
Here are a few instructional methods to consider:
Direct Teaching
Direct teaching is the most common form of teaching. It occurs when a teacher addresses the class using whatever means they choose, relaying the information to students as a group. Lessons are well organized, and this method is effective for teaching specific facts and skills, but the format of this type of teaching can stifle creativity.
Cooperative Learning
Group projects not only give children the opportunity to learn by doing, but allow them to work with, teach, and learn from their peers. While some students do not work well in groups, others excel in them.
Lecture
As one might guess, a lecture is simply a lecture. While some incorporate other media, many simply involve a teacher orally relaying a message. Teachers can engage students and test their understanding by injecting group discussion into the lecture, which breaks up the monotony of a speech.
Brainstorming
Brainstorming occurs when a teacher introduces an issue and asks the students to reach a conclusion on their own, through a moderated, guided thought process. While this works well in courses that emphasize critical thinking and creativity, it is not appropriate for math, science, and other analytical subjects.
Videotapes/ Slides/ Digital Presentations
Including new media in your lessons will not only encourage your students to focus, but will appeal to senses regular lectures do not stimulate. They also allow the teacher to metaphorically break out of the classroom and enter the real world, allowing cameras to take students places teachers simply cannot.
Role Playing
The essence of learn by doing, role playing allows the students to act out a lesson and test their skills and knowledge. This method allows students to assume the roles of others and appreciate another point of view, but some students may feel self-conscious or threatened, so be sure to take the needs of such students into account.
Guest Speakers
Guest speakers allow students to learn from those who have first-hand knowledge in the discipline of interest. These guests can not only share real-world information about a subject that students' ordinary instructors have not had the opportunity to acquire, but also breaks up the daily routine, inspiring student engagement.

Instructional Activities
Instructional Activities refers to teaching and teaching-related activities such as curriculum development; preparing for and conducting class meetings, including: laboratory, studio, clinical, practicum, or shop practice; developing instructional materials; preparing and grading assignments and examinations; conferring with students about coursework; non-credit and community services instructional offerings; engaging in other teaching-related activities; academic advising and career counseling of students; recruiting students; evaluating student transcripts and life experience equivalencies; assisting students in planning their programs of study; advising student groups; serving as a mentor to individual students; other related student life and student support activities; and other "hours arranged" such as credit by examinations and independent study.
(honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/.../inst-act.htm)
Learning activities
This category is mainly concerned with the development of learning materials at Wikiversity. Learning activities are an important part of these materials. It would be useful to know where these learning activities are, if they have been completed and how popular they are. This information can then be used to develop any uncompleted learning activities, improve or promote the unpopular activities and encourage all learning materials to adapt the best learning activities. This would help in drawing up lists of work that needs doing at Wikiversity and places where learners could participate in developing these materials.
(http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Category_talk:Learning_activities)
Instructional Methods Information
Instructional methods and teaching methods mean the same thing. They are primarily descriptions of the learning objective oriented activities and flow of information between teachers and students. Although some may argue otherwise, to split hairs over whether such methods are meaningfully different adds nothing to the process of learning to be a teacher. Direct and indirect instruction are two main categories that many educators find useful for classifying teaching methods, but it is, as you will see, a bit more complicated than placing all instruction into two categories. Any instructional method a teacher uses has advantages, disadvantages, and requires some preliminary preparation. Often times, a particular teaching method will naturally flow into another, all within the same lesson, and excellent teachers have developed the skills to make the process seamless to the students. Which instructional method is "right" for a particular lesson depends on many things, and among them are the age and developmental level of the students, what the students already know, and what they need to know to succeed with the lesson, the subject-matter content, the objective of the lesson, the available people, time, space and material resources, and the physical setting. Another, more difficult problem is to select an instructional method that best fits one's particular teaching style and the lesson-situation. There is no one "right" method for teaching a particular lesson, but there are some criteria that pertain to each that can help a teacher make the best decision possible. The following teaching or instructional methods relate to the instruction part of the ADPRIMA Instruction System. The methods are not listed in a preferred sequence, no hierarchy of putative superiority of method is intended, and obviously, not all are appropriate for all grades and subject matter content areas.(http://www.adprima.com/teachmeth.htm)
Instructional Methods: Activities to Include in Your Lesson Plans
Each student has his or her own learning style. In order to create an effective lesson plan that meets all of these different needs, teachers, tutors, and home school parents should include a variety of instructional methods. This article outlines several useful teaching methods.
No two children are exactly alike. This is true in the classroom as well as out. Each student, after all, has his or her own unique learning style. While some students learn by seeing, others learn by hearing and others learn by doing.
In order for a teacher to be effective she must be able to reach her students using methods that work best for them. Mixing things up in this fashion will also help alleviate boredom, engaging students, and helping them truly retain their lessons.
Here are a few instructional methods to consider:
Direct Teaching Direct teaching is the most common form of teaching. It occurs when a teacher addresses the class using whatever means they choose, relaying the information to students as a group. Lessons are well organized, and this method is effective for teaching specific facts and skills, but the format of this type of teaching can stifle creativity.
Cooperative Learning Group projects not only give children the opportunity to learn by doing, but allow them to work with, teach, and learn from their peers. While some students do not work well in groups, others excel in them.
Lecture As one might guess, a lecture is simply a lecture. While some incorporate other media, many simply involve a teacher orally relaying a message. Teachers can engage students and test their understanding by injecting group discussion into the lecture, which breaks up the monotony of a speech.
Brainstorming Brainstorming occurs when a teacher introduces an issue and asks the students to reach a conclusion on their own, through a moderated, guided thought process. While this works well in courses that emphasize critical thinking and creativity, it is not appropriate for math, science, and other analytical subjects.
Videotapes/ Slides/ Digital Presentations Including new media in your lessons will not only encourage your students to focus, but will appeal to senses regular lectures do not stimulate. They also allow the teacher to metaphorically break out of the classroom and enter the real world, allowing cameras to take students places teachers simply cannot.
Role Playing The essence of learn by doing, role playing allows the students to act out a lesson and test their skills and knowledge. This method allows students to assume the roles of others and appreciate another point of view, but some students may feel self-conscious or threatened, so be sure to take the needs of such students into account.
Guest Speakers Guest speakers allow students to learn from those who have first-hand knowledge in the discipline of interest. These guests can not only share real-world information about a subject that students' ordinary instructors have not had the opportunity to acquire, but also breaks up the daily routine, inspiring student engagement.
Instructional strategies
Instructional strategies determine the approach a teacher may take to achieve learning objectives.
Five categories of instructional strategies and explanation of these five categories can be found within this site.
Instructional methods are used by teachers to create learning environments and to specify the nature of the activity in which the teacher and learner will be involved during the lesson. While particular methods are often associated with certain strategies, some methods may by found within a variety of strategies.(http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/de/pd/instr/index.html)
Instructional Strategies
What are instructional strategies?
Instructional strategies are methods that are used in the lesson to ensure that the sequence or delivery of instruction helps students learn.
What does effective mean?
The term "effective" means that student performance improves when the instructional strategies are used. The strategies were identified in studies conducted using research procedures and guidelines that ensure confidence about the results. In addition, several studies exist for each strategy with an adequate sample size and the use of treatment and control groups to generalize to the target population. This allows teachers to be confident about how to apply the strategies in their classrooms.



Strategies to use in designing effective lessons
These six strategies have been proven to work with diverse groups of learners (Kameenui & Carnine, Effective Teaching Strategies that Accommodate Diverse Learners, 1998). All students, and particularly those with disabilities, benefit when teachers incorporate these strategies into their instruction on a regular basis.
Focus on essentials.
Make linkages obvious and explicit.
Prime background knowledge.
Provide temporary support for learning.
Use conspicuous steps and strategies.
Review for fluency and generalization.
Focus on essentials
Identify important principles, key concepts, and big ideas from the curriculum that apply across major themes in the subject content.
Techniques:
Big Ideas: Instruction is organized around the major themes that run through a subject area. This helps students make the connections between concepts and learn to use higher order thinking skills. Kameenui and Carnine (1998) identify these examples of big ideas for social studies:
problem-solution-effect
success of group efforts is related to motivation, leadership, resources, and capability
Graphic organizers: Important ideas and details are laid out graphically to help students see connections between ideas. Semantic webs and concept maps are examples of graphic organizers.
Thematic instruction: Instructional units combine subject areas to make themes and essential ideas more apparent and meaningful. Lessons and assignments can be integrated or coordinated across classes.
Planning routines: The Center for Research on Learning at the University of Kansas website (go to http://www.kucrl.org/sim/content.shtml) has developed Content Enhancement Routines, systematic routines that include graphic organizers to help teachers plan a course, unit, or lesson around the essentials or big ideas. Teachers guide students to use the organizer to monitor their learning.\
(http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/de/pd/instr/index.html)
Action learning
Action learning is an educational process whereby the participant studies their own actions and experience in order to improve performance. This concept is close to learning-by-doing and teaching through examples and repetitions.
Action learning is done in conjunction with others, in small groups called action learning sets or two-in, two-out team. It is proposed as particularly suitable for adults, as it enables each person to reflect on and review the action they have taken and the learning points arising. This should then guide future action and improve performance.
The method stands in contrast with the traditional teaching methods that focus on the presentation of knowledge and skills. Action learning focuses on research into action taken and knowledge emerges as a result that should lead to the improvement of skills and performance. It has strong links to various philosophies relating to existentialism, the psychology of self-understanding and self-development, and the sociology of group based learning.(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Action_learning)

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